# IB Tips from our IB math and science tutors

Updated: Jan 12, 2019

__IB math__ and science are subjects that a lot of IB students have difficulties with. In this blog post, we will share tips suggested by our IB math tutor and IB science tutor.

Math, Physics and Chemistry are similar in a lot of ways. Students who

enjoy one tend to enjoy the other two and students who excel in one will

mostly excel in the other two. All three subjects require students to think

and solve problems logically. Most students can understand the basic

concepts, but not many can apply the concepts to difficult test questions

and score top marks. You have probably heard that the key to doing well in

these subjects is intensive practice, but you may not know the most

effective way of practicing.

Through talking to top students in the fields of Math, Physics and

Chemistry, we have discovered that students who excel in these fields have

a specific mindset and approach to studying that set them apart.

**The bulldog mindset**

Are you a good problem solver? You might think problem-solving skills

are an innate ability, but we are here to tell you that it is not. A top student

we talked to told us that he read a chapter in the book "Outlier" by

Malcolm Gladwell that improved his score in the sciences and math

dramatically.

In one of the chapters, Gladwell tries to explain the difference in math

ability between Asians and Caucasian Americans. This has been the

subject of many studies, and experiments seem to show that the answer can

be captured by one word: persistency.

To study the difference in how people approach a math problem, a math

professor gave difficult math problems to over 1000 Asians and Caucasian

Americans to do. The stunning difference is that Asians are willing to

spend an average of 15-30 minutes on the problem before giving up. While

Caucasian Americans, on the other hand, are only willing to give the

problem 3-5 minutes. The study concludes that persistency is what sets

great math students apart from poor math students. The best math students

are willing to dedicate themselves to figuring things out before giving up,

but the poor ones just give up too easily.

There are 3 main benefits of breaking down a difficult math problem on

your own:

1. You gain tremendous confidence in problem solving, and soon, you will

love solving math questions.

2. You will understand the concepts related to the question very well.

3. You can solve unfamiliar problems in exams much more easily.

After talking to more top math students, we found that they all have the

never-give-up mindset and attitude, which we called the bulldog mindset.

Some poor math students we talked to, on the other hand, simply give up

very easily. Whenever they encounter a question they don’t know, they

would give up within 30 seconds and ask the teacher for the answer. To be

great at math, you need to be willing to try different approaches to solving

a problem until you find one that works. When you finally do find one, you

will feel tremendously rewarding and the problem solving skill will truly

become yours.

**With repetition comes intuition**

Almost all top math students describe problem solving as an intuitive

process. When they see a question on an exam, their instinct will show

them the approach to solving it. The process is automatic. It is like a reflex

action in their brain that tells them what they should do. Do you find this

hard to relate to?

Everyone has the ability to achieve this level of mastery. When you repeat

a process over and over again, it becomes wired into your brain. It is like

learning to ride a bicycle when you were a kid. At first, you needed to

consciously think about how to balance yourself and move forward. But

with enough practice, it will become natural to you and you do not even

need to think about it. The same is true for any kind of skill. You know you

have achieved mastery when you can solve problems without consciously

thinking step by step. You would intuitively know the steps to take.

The problem now is ― how do you get there? Below are the essential

steps.

**Guideline 1: Master from easy to hard**

In Math, Chemistry and Physics, concepts build upon themself. Without

understanding the basics, it is impossible to tackle the hard questions.

Thus, it is important that you are patient in mastering the simple concepts

before moving forward to the hard ones. Almost all top students always

work hard to ensure that they don’t fall behind.

How do you truly master a math concept? Purely understanding or

memorizing is far from enough. As we mentioned earlier, you need to

develop an intuition for problem solving and this only comes with practice.

Thus, after you have understood a concept, you need to do at least 5-6

textbook practice questions or in-class examples that are related to that

concept. Before moving to the next concept, you should ensure that you

can solve problems related to the concept with ease.

**Guideline 2: Sort past-papers questions by types and practice!
**

After you have understood all the concepts from class and the textbook,

you should begin sorting past paper questions by topic and focus on one

topic at a time. Past papers are usually harder than textbook questions

because textbooks are designed mainly for demonstration, while past

exams are made to “identify” the elites of a subject. Thus, to do well on

your exam, you need to move beyond your textbook and go to past paper

questions!

Some students are overwhelmed when reviewing past papers. It almost

seems as if there are infinitely more possibilities of questions that could

appear. But if you look deeper, you will be able to categorize problems into

types. In the end, you will find that there are only a handful of categories

for each topic. Grouping questions together could be very difficult,

especially for a beginner. This is where good tutors who understand the

syllabus well come in handy. They already know all the different types of

questions there are and the common solutions to them. After grouping

questions into types, you can practice repeatedly one category at a time. As

mentioned above, repetition is essential for wiring concepts into your mind.

Focusing on one type of questions at a time allows repetition, which is

essential to developing intuition. After mastering all sorts of questions, it is

just a matter of recalling different sections on the syllabus when you face

the final exam.

Of course, not every single question falls into a particular type. Questions

that can be identified as a common type usually make up around 60-70% of

the exam. If you follow this guideline, you should score at least 90% for

this major part of the exam that is relatively predictable. The good news is

that many students will struggle in this relatively easy part of the exam

because they have not done enough practice. Following this guideline

should put you ahead of many students already!

**Guideline 3: Identify the outliers**

Around 15-25% of questions are “outliers”, which are questions that are

unlike other questions that usually require thinking out of the box. Most

students will have no clue how to solve these types of questions. If you can

score around 50-60% in this section, you should expect to score in the top

20-10 percentile, which is already a top grade.

To develop you ability to solve unfamiliar questions (the “outliers”), you

need to first have a bulldog mindset. Furthermore, when you go through

past papers, you should identify questions that are “outliers” and put a

mark beside them to remind yourself to go back to them later. When it

comes close to the exam, you should have already mastered the most

common questions. Most top student will use their final study time to

quickly go back to these outlier questions for final revision.

**Guideline 4: Do entire past papers in exam conditions**

Coaches in sports always emphasize on the importance of training in match

conditions. Training should be a simulation of the real game. It is the same

for studying for an exam. After you have done what is advised in the first 3

guidelines, you need to do full sets of past papers in exam conditions. In

real exams, different types of questions are thrown together in no particular

pattern, which makes it much harder to chapter topic tests. It requires you

to recall and apply different concepts in the syllabus quickly. If you are not

used to this, you will significantly underperform in your exam.

You should sit in a quiet area and time yourself when you do full mock

exams. Many students give themselves more time than they would get in

the real exam. Being able to think and solve problems quickly is something

you can’t ignore. You need to step up on this ability in your practice runs!

**The lowest hanging fruit principle**

The lowest hanging-fruit principle is a concept from Economics that can

be applied very effectively to a test-taking situation, especially for Math,

Chemistry and Physics. The principle simply states that in order to achieve

maximum efficiency, one must first achieve outcomes with the least cost

before trying to achieve outcomes that are more costly. In your exam, this

means that you should finish questions in the order of difficulty, starting from the easiest ones. There are a few very logical arguments that back up this approach.

Firstly, doing the easiest questions first is the most time-effective.

Assuming that the easiest questions require the least amount of time, which

is a reasonable assumption, you will certainly gain the highest possible

score within the shortest possible time. It is definitely the most efficient

way of allocating your time. In your final exam, timing is everything. You

need to maximize your efficiency.

Here are some interestingstudy tips by our Tutors

A second more subtle reason is that by doing the easiest questions first, you

gain the confidence and composure that you will need for the “outlier”

questions later on. By the time you move to the questions that require

thinking out of the box, you should have captured all the easy marks,

which already puts you on an acceptable level. This greatly reduces your

stress and enhances your ability to think out of the box to tackle the

challenging questions.

Alternatively, if you just go in the order the questions given to you in the

exam paper, you might very well bump into an unfamiliar question in the

beginning and become stuck. All the while, you still have plenty of

questions waiting for you and you haven’t even gotten enough points to

pass yet! Imagine all the stress you would be under. Putting yourself in this

situation is unnecessary. You can avoid it by applying the lowest hanging fruit

principle.

We hope that the tips above can help IB students. If you want to register for a free trial with our IB math tutor or IB science tutor, just click on our __free trial page__.